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OOPs Concepts in Java ( Updated 2023) – styxor.com

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In this blog, we are going to learn about the basics of OOPs concepts in java. Object-oriented programming is a model that provides different types of concepts, such as inheritance, abstraction, polymorphism, etc. These concepts aim to implement real-world entities in programs, and they create working methods and variables to reuse them without compromising security. Many of the most widely used and significant object-oriented programming languages include Java, C++, C#, JavaScript, Python, Ruby, Perl, Smalltalk, etc.

What is OOPs Concept?

Object-oriented programming is a core of Java Programming, which is used for designing a program using classes and objects. OOPs, can also be characterized as data controlling for accessing the code. In this approach, programmers define the data type of a data structure and the operations that are applied to the data structure.

What is OOPs in java? 

OOps in java is to improve code readability and reusability by defining a Java program efficiently. The main principles of object-oriented programming are abstraction, encapsulation, inheritance, and polymorphism. These concepts aim to implement real-world entities in programs.

List of OOPs Concepts in Java

  • Objects
  • Classes
  • Object 
  • Class
  • Abstraction
  • Inheritance 
  • Polymorphism
  • Encapsulation
OOps concept in Java

What are Objects?  

Objects are always called instances of a class which are created from a class in java or any other language. They have states and behaviour.

These objects always correspond to things found in the real world, i.e., real entities. So, they are also called run-time entities of the world. These are self–contained which consists of methods and properties which make data useful. Objects can be both physical and logical data. It contains addresses and takes up some space in memory. Some examples of objects are a dog, chair, tree etc. 

When we treat animals as objects, it has states like colour, name, breed etc., and behaviours such as eating, wagging the tail etc.

Suppose, we have created a class called My book, we specify the class name followed by the object name, and we use the keyword new.

Object Example 1:

Public class Mybook {
int x=10;
Public static void main (String args []) {
Mybook Myobj= new Mybook ();
System.out.println(MyObj.x);
}
}

In the above example, a new object is created, and it returns the value of x which may be the number of books.

Mybook Myobj= new Mybook ();

 This is the statement used for creating objects.

System.out.println(Myobj.x);

This statement is used to return the value of x of an object.

We can also create multiple objects in the same class and we can create in one class and access it in another class. This method is used for better organization of classes and always remember that name of the java file and the class name remains the same. 

Example 2:

The below example shows how multiple objects are created in the same class and how they are accessed from another class.

Public class Mybook {
int x=10;
int y=8;
}

Class Count {
Public static void main (String [] args)
{
Mybook myobj1 = new myobj1();
          Mybook myobj2 = new myobj2();
           System.out.println (myobj1.x);
System.out.println (myobj2.y);
}
}

When this program is compiled, it gives the result as 10, and 8 respectively.

What are Classes?

Classes are like object constructors for creating objects. The collection of objects is said to be a class. Classes are said to be logical quantities. Classes don’t consume any space in the memory. Class is also called a template of an object. Classes have members which can be fields, methods and constructors. A class has both static and instance initializers.

A class declaration consists of:

  1. Modifiers: These can be public or default access.
  2. Class name: Initial letter.
  3. Superclass: A class can only extend (subclass) one parent.
  4. Interfaces: A class can implement more than one interface.
  5. Body: Body surrounded by braces, { }.

A class keyword is used to create a class. A simplified general form of the class definition is given below:

class classname {
type instance variable 1;
type instance variable 2;
.
.
.
type instance variable n;
type methodname 1 (parameter list) {
// body od method 
}
type methodname 2 (parameter list) {
// body od method 
}
type methodnamen (parameter list) {
// body od method 
}
 }

The variables or data defined within a class are called instance variables. Code is always contained in the methods. Therefore, the methods and variables defined within a class are called members of the class. All the methods have the same form as the main () these methods are not specified as static or public. 

What is Abstraction?  

Abstraction is a process which displays only the information needed and hides the unnecessary information. We can say that the main purpose of abstraction is data hiding. Abstraction means selecting data from a large number of data to show the information needed, which helps in reducing programming complexity and efforts.  

There are also abstract classes and abstract methods. An abstract class is a type of class that declares one or more abstract methods. An abstract method is a method that has a method definition but not implementation. Once we have modelled our object using data abstraction, the same sets of data can also be used in different applications—abstract classes, generic types of behaviours and object-oriented programming hierarchy. Abstract methods are used when two or more subclasses do the same task in different ways and through different implementations. An abstract class can have both methods, i.e., abstract methods and regular methods.

Now let us see an example related to abstraction.

Suppose we want to create a student application and ask to collect information about the student.

We collect the following information.  

  • Name 
  • Class
  • Address
  • Dob
  • Fathers name
  • Mothers’ names and so on. 

We may not require every information that we have collected to fill out the application. So, we select the data that is required to fill out the application. Hence, we have fetched, removed, and selected the data, the student information from large data. This process is known as abstraction in the oops concept.

Abstract class example:

//abstract parent class 
    	Abstract class animal {
    	 //abstract method 
   	  public abstract void sound ( ) ;
    	 }
   	 Public class lion extends animal {
  	  Public void sound ( ) {
System.out.println (“ roar “ );
}
public Static void main ( String args [ ] ) {
 animal obj = new lion ( );
obj. sound ();
}
}

Output: 
Roar

What is Inheritance?

Inheritance is a method in which one object acquires/inherits another object’s properties, and inheritance also supports hierarchical classification. The idea behind this is that we can create new classes built on existing classes, i.e., when you inherit from an existing class, we can reuse methods and fields of the parent class. Inheritance represents the parent-child relationship. To know more about this concept check the free inheritance in java course.

For example, a whale is a part of the classification of marine animals, which is part of class mammal, which is under that class of animal. We use hierarchical classification, i.e., top-down classification. If we want to describe a more specific class of animals such as mammals, they would have more specific attributes such as teeth; cold-blooded, warm-blooded, etc. This comes under the subclass of animals whereas animals come under the superclass. The subclass is a class which inherits properties of the superclass. This is also called a derived class. A superclass is a base class or parental class from which a subclass inherits properties.

We use inheritance mainly for method overriding and R:

To inherit a class, we use the extend keyword.

There are five types of inheritance single, multilevel, multiple, hybrid and hierarchical. 

In this one class i.e., the derived class inherits properties from its parental class.  This enables code reusability and also adds new features to the code. Example: class b inherits properties from class a.

Class A is the base or parental class and class b is the derived class.

Syntax: 

Class a {
…
}
Class b extends class a {
…
}

This one class is derived from another class which is also derived from another class i.e., this class has more than one parental class, hence it is called multilevel inheritance.

Syntax:

Class a {
….
}
Class b extends class a {
….
}
Class c extends class b {
… 
}

In this one parental class has two or more derived classes or we can say that two or more child classes have one parental class.

Syntax:

Class a {
…
}	
Class b extends class a {
..
}
Class c extends class a {
..
}

This is the combination of multiple and multilevel inheritances and in java, multiple inheritances are not supported as it leads to ambiguity and this type of inheritance can only be achieved through interfaces.

Consider that class a is the parental or base class of class b and class c and in turn, class b and class c are parental or a base class of class d. Class b and class c are derived classes from class a and class d is derived class from class b and class c.

The following program creates a superclass called add and a subclass called sub, using extend keyword to create a subclass add.

// a simple example of inheritance 
//create a superclass
Class Add {
int my;
int by;
void setmyby (int xy, int hy) {
my=xy;
by=hy;
}
}
/create a sub class
class b extends add {
int total;
void sum () {
public Static void main (String args [ ] ) {
b subOb= new b ( );
subOb. Setmyby (10, 12);
subOb. Sum ( ) ;
System.out.println(“total =” + subOb. Total);
}
} 

It gives output as – total = 22

What is Polymorphism?

Polymorphism refers to many forms, or it is a process that performs a single action in different ways. It occurs when we have many classes related to each other by inheritance. Polymorphism is of two different types, i.e., compile-time polymorphism and runtime polymorphism. One of the examples of Compile time polymorphism is that when we overload a static method in java. Run time polymorphism also called a dynamic method dispatch is a method in which a call to an overridden method is resolved at run time rather than compile time. In this method, the overridden method is always called through the reference variable. By using method overloading and method overriding, we can perform polymorphism. Generally, the concept of polymorphism is often expressed as one interface, and multiple methods. This reduces complexity by allowing the same interface to be used as a general class of action. 

Example:

public class Bird {
…
Public void sound ( ) {
System.out.println ( “ birds sounds “ );
}
}
public class pigeon extends Bird {
…
@override
public void sound ( ) {
System.out.println( “ cooing ” ) ;
}
}
public class sparrow extends Bird ( ) {
….
@override 
Public void sound ( ){
System.out.println( “ chip ” ) ;
}
}

In the above example, we can see common action sound () but there are different ways to do the same action. This is one of the examples which shows polymorphism.

Polymorphism in java can be classified into two types:

  1. Static / Compile-Time Polymorphism
  2. Dynamic / Runtime Polymorphism

What is Compile-Time Polymorphism in Java?

Compile-Time polymorphism in java is also known as Static Polymorphism. to resolved at compile-time which is achieved through the Method Overloading.

What is Runtime Polymorphism in Java?

Runtime polymorphism in java is also known as Dynamic Binding which is used to call an overridden method that is resolved dynamically at runtime rather than at compile time. 

What is Encapsulation?

Encapsulation is one of the concepts in OOPs concepts; it is the process that binds together the data and code into a single unit and keeps both from being safe from outside interference and misuse. In this process, the data is hidden from other classes and can be accessed only through the current class’s methods. Hence, it is also known as data hiding. Encapsulation acts as a protective wrapper that prevents the code and data from being accessed by outsiders. These are controlled through a well-defined interface. 

Encapsulation is achieved by declaring the variables as private and providing public setter and getter methods to modify and view the variable values. In encapsulation, the fields of a class are made read-only or write-only. This method also improves reusability. Encapsulated code is also easy to test for unit testing.

Example:

class animal {
// private field 
private int age;
//getter method 
Public int getage ( ) {
return age;
}
//setter method 
public void setAge ( int age ) {
this. Age = age;
}
}
class Main {
public static void main (String args []);
//create an object of person 
Animal a1= new Animal ();
//change age using setter 
A1. setAge (12);
// access age using getter 
System.out.println(“ animal age is ” + a1. getage ( ) );
}
}


Output: Animal age is 12

In this example, we declared a private field called age that cannot be accessed outside of the class.

To access age, we used public methods. These methods are called getter and setter methods. Making age private allows us to restrict unauthorized access from outside the class. Hence this is called data hiding. 

Coupling in Java

Coupling refers to the relationship between two classes. It indicates the knowledge one object or class has of another. That means that if one class changes its properties or behaviour, it will affect the dependent changes in the other class. Therefore, these changes will depend upon the level of interdependence the two classes have between them. There are two types of coupling, namely tight coupling, and loose coupling.

  • Tight coupling: If one class is strongly interrelated to another class, it is said to have a tight coupling with that class. 
public class College{
public void status() {
System.out.println("College is open today");
}
}
public class Student{
College obj = new College();
public void goToCollege() {
obj.status();
}
}

In the above code example, the student class is dependent on the college class. That is, any change in the college class requires student classes to change. Here, therefore, student class and college class are tightly coupled with each other.

  • Loose coupling: If one class is weakly interrelated to another class, it is said to have loose coupling with that class. Loose coupling is preferred over tight coupling. A class can achieve this with the help of interfaces, as shown below. 
public interface College{
void status();
}
class CollegeStatus1 implements College{
public void status() {
System.out.println("College is open monday to friday");
}
}
class CollegeStatus2 implements College{
public void status() {
System.out.println("College is open on saturday");
}
}
public class Student{
College obj = new CollegeStatus1();
public void goToCollege() {
obj.status();
}
}

In the above code example, CollegeStatus1 and CollegeStatus2 are loosely coupled. Here, student class is not directly or tightly coupled with a CollegeStatus1 or CollegeStatus2 class. By applying a dependency injection mechanism, the loose coupling implementation is achieved to allow a student to go to college with any class which has implemented a college interface. In addition, it means we can use CollegeStatus2 whenever the college is open on Saturday.

Cohesion in Java

Java Cohesion measures how the methods and the attributes of a class are meaningfully and strongly related to each other and how focused they are on performing a single well-defined task for the system. This is used to indicate the degree to which a class has a single, well-focused responsibility. More cohesive classes are good to keep them for code reusability. Low cohesive classes are difficult to maintain as they have a less logical relationship between their methods and properties. It is always better to have highly cohesive classes to keep them well focused for a single work.

  • Low Cohesion: In the following code, we have a class called Book. But it is less cohesive because it comprises less focussed and independent attributes and methods to the class. This class should contain information related to the Book. Therefore, the person’s name and age method are making this classless cohesive.
class Book{
int price = 299; //related attribute
String name = "Sam"; //unrelated attribute
//related methods to Book class
public String author(String name) {
return name;
}
public String title(String subject) {
return subject;
}
public int id(int number) {
return number;
}
//unrelated methods to Book class
public int age(int age) {
return age;
}
}
  • High Cohesion: When the class has a single well-defined purpose or task, it is said to be highly cohesive. So, in the above example code, if we remove the information related to the person, then the class becomes highly cohesive, as shown below.
class Book{
int price = 299; //related attribute
//related methods to Book class
public String author(String name) {
return name;
}
public String title(String subject) {
return subject;
}
public int id(int number) {
return number;
}
}

Association in Java

Association is a relation between two separate classes that establishes with the help of their Objects. It specifies the relationship between two or more Objects. Association can be one-to-one, one-to-many, many-to-one, and many-to-many. Let us understand this with real-world examples, suppose the relationship between the bus and the passengers. A bus can have only one driver(one-to-one). Many passengers can associate with the single bus(many-to-one). A single passenger can associate with many different buses(one-to-many). Also, many passengers can associate with the many different buses(many-to-many). One object is associated with another object to use the functionality and services provided by another object. 

Consider the following code below:

//class bus
class Bus
{
private String name;
// bus name
Bus(String name)
{
this.name = name;
}
public String getBusName()
{
return this.name;
}
}

//passenger class
class Passenger
{   
// passenger name
private String name;
// passenger seat id number
private int seatId;
Passenger(String name, int seatId)
{
this.name = name;
this.seatId = seatId;
}
public String getPassengerName()
{
return this.name;
}
public int getPassengerId()
{
return this.seatId;
}
}

//Association between both the
//classes in the main method
class Demo
{
public static void main (String[] args)
{
Bus bus = new Bus("Shree Travels");
        Passenger psg = new Passenger("Sneha", 52);
System.out.println(psg.getPassengerName() + " with seat number " + psg.getPassengerId()
+ " is a passenger of " + bus.getBusName());
}
}

Output:

Sneha with seat number 52 is a passenger of Shree Travels

Explanation:

In the above example, two separate classes Bus and Passenger, are associated through their Objects inside the class Demo. In this way, we can establish the relationship between two different classes by using the concept of association. A bus can have many passengers, So it is a one-to-many relationship.

Association is of two types, they are:
1. Aggregation
2. Composition

Let’s discuss the two in detail.

Aggregation

Java Aggregation is a weak association and represents a relationship between an object containing other objects. This represents a part of a whole relationship where a part can exist without a whole. Let’s take an example of the relationship between Group and Person. A Person may belong to multiple Groups. Hence a Group can have multiple Persons. But if we delete a Group, the Person object will not destroy. Aggregation represents the Has-A relationship, unidirectional association, i.e., a one-way relationship. For instance, the group can have persons, but vice versa is not possible and thus unidirectional. In this section, both entries can survive individually, which means ending one entity will not affect the other entity. Hence, both objects are independent in aggregation.

Considering the following code example:

import java.util.*;

//person class
class Person
{
private String name;
private int age ;
Person(String name, int age)
{
this.name = name;
this.age = age;
}
public String getName() {
return name;
}
public int getAge() {
return age;
}
}

/* Group class contains the list of person
Objects. It is associated with the person
class through its Object(s). */

//group class
class Group
{
private String groupName;
private List<Person> persons;
Group(String groupName, List<Person> persons)
{
this.groupName = groupName;
this.persons = persons;
}
}

//main method
class Demo
{
public static void main (String[] args)
{   
//creating objects of person class
Person a = new Person("Tanmay", 17);
Person b = new Person("Sam", 18);
Person c = new Person("Pitu", 19);
Person d = new Person("Khushi", 20);
//making a list of persons belongs to social welfare group
List<Person> p1 = new ArrayList<>();
p1.add(a);
p1.add(c);
//making a list of persons belongs to drama fest group
List<Person> p2 = new ArrayList<>();
p2.add(b);
p2.add(d);
//creating objects of group class
Group swGrp = new Group("Social Welfare", p1);
Group dfGrp = new Group("Drama Fest", p2);
//before deleting drama fest group
System.out.println("List of persons in Drama Fest group:");
for(Person p : p2) {
System.out.println("Person name: " + p.getName() + ", Age:" + p.getAge() + ", Group: Drama Fest");
}
//deleting drama fest group
dfGrp = null;
//after deleting drama fest group
//person list will not destroy
System.out.println("List of persons after deleting Drama Fest group:");
for(Person p : p2) {
System.out.println("Person name: " + p.getName() + ", Age: " + p.getAge());
}
}
}

Output:

List of persons in Drama Fest group:

Person name: Sam, Age:18, Group: Drama Fest

Person name: Khushi, Age:20, Group: Drama Fest

List of persons after deleting Drama Fest group:

Person name: Sam, Age: 18

Person name: Khushi, Age: 20

Explanation:

Here, we can see that the two classes Person and Group, are associated with each other with the help of objects. There are two groups social welfare and drama fest. We created these groups by using the person class. The group has a list of persons. We have two people Sam and Khushi, in the Drama Fest group as shown in the output. Afterwards, we deleted this group by setting the instance of group equals to null. But, our list of persons remains undestroyed due to the weak association, i.e., aggregation, even after the group was deleted.

Composition in Java

Java Composition is an association that represents a part of a whole relationship where a part cannot exist without a whole. Let’s take an example of the relationship between School and Room. The school object consists of several rooms. Whenever the school object destroys automatically, all the room objects will be destroyed, i.e., without the existing school object, there is no chance of an existing dependent object. So these are strongly associated, and this relationship is called composition. If a whole is deleted, then all parts are deleted. So composition represents the part-of relationship. 

Whenever there is a composition between two entities, the created object cannot exist without the other object. Thus, in composition, both entities are dependent on each other.

Consider the following code example:

import java.util.*;   
// activity room class
class ActivityRoom {  
    public String subject;   
    public int id;   
    
    ActivityRoom(String subject, int id)   
    {   
        this.subject = subject;   
        this.id = id;   
    }   
    
}   
// department class   
class Department {   
private String name;
    //list of activity rooms in a department.   
    private List<ActivityRoom> ar; 
    
    Department(List<ActivityRoom> ar)  
    {  
        this.ar = ar;  
    }   
    // Getting total number of colleges  
    public List<ActivityRoom> getActivityRoomsInDepartment()   
    {   
        return ar;   
    }   
}   
class Demo {   
    public static void main(String[] args)   
    {   
        // Creating the Objects of activity room class.   
     ActivityRoom a1 = new ActivityRoom("Technical", 601);   
     ActivityRoom a2 = new ActivityRoom("Business", 602);   
     ActivityRoom a3 = new ActivityRoom("Economics", 603);  
     
        // making the list of activity rooms.   
        List<ActivityRoom> act = new ArrayList<ActivityRoom>();   
        act.add(a1);   
        act.add(a2);   
        act.add(a3);  
        
        // Creating the Object of department class. 
        Department d = new Department(act); 
        
        // making the list of activity rooms in department.   
        List<ActivityRoom> arlist = d.getActivityRoomsInDepartment();   
        for (ActivityRoom a : arlist) {   
            System.out.println(a.subject + " activity room with id " + a.id);   
        }  
        
    }   
}

Output:

Technical activity room with id 601

Business activity room with id 602

Economics activity room with id 603

Explanation:

Here we have two classes Activity room and Department. A department composed of different subject activity rooms. So, If the department gets destroyed, then All activity rooms within that department will be destroyed, i.e., the activity room can not exist without the department. That’s why it is composition.

Methods in Java

Java method is a block of code or collection of statements grouped together to complete a certain job or operation. This is used to achieve the reusability of code and can be utilized many times. It also gives easy modification and readability of code. A method is executed only when we call or invoke it. We have two categories of methods in java, i.e., pre-defined and user-defined. Predefined methods are the methods that are already defined in the Java class libraries. When a particular method is written by the user or programmer, it is known as a user-defined method. User-defined methods can be modified according to the requirement.

Let’s discuss:

  • Static method in Java
  • The abstract method in Java
  • Finalize method in Java
  • Equals method in Java

Static Method in Java

A method that has the static keyword in the declaration is known as the static method. In other words, a method that belongs to a class rather than an instance of a class is known as a static method. We can also create a static method by using the keyword static before the method name. The main benefit of a static method is that we can invoke the static method without even creating an object. It can access static data members and also change their values and is also used to create an instance method. The main() method is a common example of the static method.

Example:

public class Demo  
{  
public static void main(String[] args)   
{  
displaymethod();  
}  
static void displaymethod()   
{  
System.out.println("It is an example of static method.");  
}  
}  

Output:

It is an example of a static method.

Abstract Method in Java

A method that is declared with keyword abstract is called an abstract method. The abstract method does not have an implementation or body, or block of code. The abstract method must always be declared in an abstract class, or we can say that if a class has an abstract method, it should be declared abstract. If a class has an abstract method, it should be declared abstract, but vice versa is not true, which means that an abstract class doesn’t need to have an abstract method compulsory. Also, If a normal class extends an abstract class, then the class must have to implement all the abstract parent class’s abstract methods, or it has to be declared abstract.

Example:

//abstract class area
abstract class Area{
 /* These two are abstract methods, the child class
  * must implement these methods
  */
 public abstract int areaSquare(int s);
 public abstract int areaRectangle(int l, int b);
 //Normal method 
 public void display(){
System.out.println("Normal method in abstract class Area");
 }
}
//Normal class extends the abstract class
class Demo extends Area{

 /* If we don't provide the implementation of these two methods, the
  * program will throw compilation error.
  */
 public int areaSquare(int s){
return s*s;
 }
 public int areaRectangle(int l, int b){
return l*b;
 }
 public static void main(String args[]){
Area a = new Demo();
System.out.println("Area of square " + a.areaSquare(9));
System.out.println("Area of rectangle " + a.areaRectangle(3,4));
a.display();
 }
}

Output:

Area of square 81

Area of rectangle 12

The normal method in abstract class Area

Final Method in Java

A method that is declared final is called a final method. We cannot override a final method. This means the child class can still call the final method of the parent class without any problem, but it cannot override it. This is because the main purpose of making a method final is to stop the modification of the method by the sub-class.

Example:

class DemoParent{  
final void method(){
System.out.println("Parent class final method");
}  
}  
     
class Demo extends DemoParent{  
//error
void method(){
System.out.println("final method modified inside child class");
}  
     
public static void main(String args[]){  
Demo d = new Demo();  
d.method();  
}  
}

The above code will throw an error as we are trying to modify the final method inside the child class(demo) of the parent class(demoParent).

Instead of modifying the method, we can use it as shown below:

class DemoParent{  
final void method(){
System.out.println("Parent class final method");
}  
}  
     
class Demo extends DemoParent{
public static void main(String args[]){  
Demo d = new Demo();  
d.method();  
}  
}

Output:

Parent class final method

Equals Method in Java

As the name suggests in java, .equals() is a method used to compare two objects for equality. The .equals() method in java is used to check if the two strings have similar values. It checks them character by character. One should not confuse .equals() method with == operator. The String equals() method compares the two given strings based on the content of the string, whereas the == operator is used for address comparison. If all the contents of both the strings are the same, then .equals() returns true otherwise, it returns false. If all characters are not matched, then it returns false. 

Let us understand this with the help of an example:

public class Demo {
    public static void main(String[] args)
    {
        String s1 = "GreatLearning";
        String s2 = "GreatLearning";
        String s3 = new String("GreatLearning");
        System.out.println(s1 == s2); // true
        System.out.println(s1 == s3); // false
        System.out.println(s1.equals(s2)); // true
        System.out.println(s1.equals(s3)); // true
    }
}

Even though s1 and s3 are created with the same field(content), they are pointing to two different objects in memory. Hence at different addresses. Therefore == operator gives false and .equals() method gives true as both contain similar content greatLearning.

Message Passing in Java

Message Passing in terms of computers is a communication phenomenon between the processes. It is a kind of communication used in object-oriented programming. Message passing in Java is the same as sending an object, i.e., a message from one thread to another thread. It is utilized when threads do not have shared memory and are not able to share monitors or any other shared variables to communicate. In message passing calling program sends a message to a process and relies on that process to run its own functionality or code. Message passing is easy to implement, has faster performance, and we can build massive parallel models by using it. 

There are two types of it: Synchronous and Asynchronous.

  • Synchronous message passing occurs when the objects run at the same time.
  • In the case of an Asynchronous message passing, the receiving object can be down or busy when the requesting object sends the message.

Can Polymorphism, Encapsulation and Inheritance work together?

When we combine inheritance, polymorphism and encapsulation to produce a programming environment, this environment supports the development of far more robust and scalable programs that do the program-oriented model. A well-designed or model of the hierarchy of classes is the basis for reusing the code in which we have spent our time and effort developing and testing.  Encapsulation allows us to migrate our implementations over time without breaking that code which depends on our classes’ public interfaces. Polymorphism allows us to create readable, clean, sensible code.

As we know, it is through the applications of encapsulation, polymorphism and inheritance that individual parts are transformed into an object; for example, it may be a car, mobile phone etc. This is true in the case of computer programs. Through object-oriented principles, the various parts of complex programs are brought together to form a cohesive, robust, maintainable whole.

Many of the features supplied by java are part of its built-in class libraries which do use encapsulation, polymorphism, and inheritance extensively. 

Let us consider a real-world example. Humans are a form of inheritance from one standpoint, whereas cars are more like programs we write. All drivers rely on inheritance to drive different types of vehicles. People interface with the features of cars of all types as we have many different types of vehicles, and some have differences. The implementation of engines, brakes etc., comes under encapsulation and finally comes to polymorphism. We get a wide area of options on the same vehicle as to the anti-lock braking system, traditional braking system or power braking system. The same vehicle as many forms of the braking system is called polymorphism. This example shows us how encapsulation, inheritance and polymorphism are combined.   

Advantages of OOPs Concept 

Some of the advantages are:

When we say re-usability, it means that “write once, use it multiple times” i.e., reusing some facilities rather than building it again and again, which can be achieved by using class. We can use it n number of times whenever required.

It is one of the greatest advantages in oops. This is the condition which is created at the data storage when the same piece of data is held at two different places. If we want to use similar functionality in multiple classes, we can just write common class definitions for similar functionalities by inheriting them.

It is easy to modify or maintain existing code as new objects which can be created with small differences from the existing ones. This helps users from doing rework many times and modifying the existing codes by incorporating new changes to it.

Data hiding and abstraction are used to filter out limited exposure which means we are providing only necessary data to view as we maintain security.

The designers will have a long and more extensive design phase, which results in better designs. At a point of time when the program has reached critical limits, it will be easier to program all non-oops separately.

Using encapsulation objects is self-constrained. So, if developers face any problem easily it can be solved. And there will be no possibility of code duplicity. 

  • Flexibility 
  • Problem-solving

Disadvantages of OOPs Concept 

  • Effort – A lot of work is put into creating these programs.
  • Speed – These programs are slower compared to other programs.
  • Size – OOPs programs are bigger when compared to other programs.

Differences between Object-Oriented Programming, Procedural Oriented Programming?

Object-oriented programming Procedure oriented programming
It is object-oriented. It is structured and oriented.
It follows a bottom-up approach. It is divided into small parts called functions.
These are divided into small parts called objects. It follows a top-down approach.
These have specifiers like public, private, and protected. There are no access specifiers.
Adding new functions or data is easy. Adding new data and functions is not easy.
It provides data hiding and it is more secure. This is less secure.
Overloading is possible. Overloading is not possible.
Examples are c++, java, python etc. Examples FORTRAN, Cobol etc.

You can learn more about oops concepts by taking a free course in oops concepts in C++.

Difference between an object-oriented programming language and an object-based programming language?

An object-based programming language is a language that allows the creation of objects but does not support the full range of features of an object-oriented programming language. An object-oriented programming language is a language that supports the programming paradigm of object-oriented programming, which is based on the concept of objects.

OOps in Java FAQ

What are the OOPS concepts in Java?

OOPs stands for Object-oriented programming. OOPs in Java organizes a program around the various objects and well-defined interfaces. The OOPs Concepts in Java are abstraction, encapsulation, inheritance, and polymorphism. These concepts aim to implement real-world entities in programs.

What are the 4 basics of OOP?

The four basics of OOP are abstraction, encapsulation, inheritance, and polymorphism. These are the main ideas behind Java’s Object-Oriented Programming.

What are the OOPS concepts in Java with examples?

OOPs, concepts in Java is known as object-oriented programming System. The following is a list of the OOPs concepts in Java with examples:
1. Class
2. Object
3. Inheritance
4. Polymorphism
5. Abstraction
6. Encapsulation
7. association
8. Aggression
9. Composition

What explains the concept of Oops?

OOPs, help in creating a working method and variable that can be reused without compromising on security. The emphasis of OOPs concepts is on data rather than on functions and is mainly used in different object-oriented programming languages such as Java, C#, C++, Python, Perl, Ruby, etc.

What are the main features of OOPs?

The main features of OOPs concepts in Java are Classes, Objects, Encapsulation, Data Abstraction, Polymorphism, and Inheritance.

Why are OOPs concepts used?

The reason for using OOPs concepts in Java is to implement various real-world entities such as polymorphism, abstraction, inheritance, etc., into programming. Another reason to use this is to ensure the security of code by binding together the data and functions.

What are the advantages of OOPs?

There are several benefits of implementing OOPs Concepts in Java. A few of the major advantages are as follows: Reusability, Code maintenance, Data Redundancy, Security, Easy troubleshooting, Problem-Solving, Flexibility and Design Benefits. Java OOPs Concepts are one of the core development approaches that is widely accepted.

What is polymorphism in OOPs?

In OOPs, Polymorphism is the process that allows us to perform a single action in multiple ways. This occurs when there are several classes related to each other through inheritance. In polymorphism, there are two types. Namely, compile-time polymorphism and runtime polymorphism. It helps us in reducing complexity.

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BA in Anthropology : Scope, Best Colleges, and Admission Details

A Bachelor of Arts (BA) in Anthropology is an undergraduate degree programme that focuses on the study of human civilizations, cultures, and their evolution over time. It gives insights on a variety of facets of human existence, including social structures, ideologies, customs, and language, as well as the effects of numerous variables on behaviour. This article will look at the scope of a BA in Anthropology, highlight some of the best universities that offer the programme, and provide admission information for potential students.

BA in Anthropology : Scope, Best Colleges

What’s the course BA in Anthropology all about?

A Bachelor of Arts (BA) in Anthropology is an undergraduate degree program that focuses on the study of human societies, cultures, and their development over time. Anthropology is a multidisciplinary field that explores various aspects of human life, including social structures, beliefs, traditions, language, and the impact of cultural, historical, and environmental factors on human behaviour.

Through a combination of theoretical knowledge and practical research, students delve into the rich diversity of human societies across the globe. They learn about different branches of anthropology, including cultural anthropology, physical anthropology, archaeology, and linguistic anthropology, gaining a comprehensive understanding of human culture, evolution, and social dynamics.

In a BA in Anthropology program, students study a wide range of topics, such as cultural diversity, kinship systems, religious practices, economic structures, political organisations, and symbolic meanings. They explore research methodologies, conduct fieldwork, and engage in analysing and interpreting data to gain insights into human behaviour and social patterns.

The curriculum often includes courses on anthropological theories, ethnographic research methods, archaeological techniques, human evolution, language and communication, and cultural heritage. Students also develop critical thinking, analytical, and cross-cultural communication skills that are valuable in various professional settings.

Career Scope after pursuing BA in Anthropology

After pursuing a Bachelor of Arts (BA) in Anthropology, graduates have a wide range of career opportunities available to them. Here are some potential career scopes for BA in Anthropology graduates:

Researcher: Graduates can work as researchers in academic institutions, think tanks, or research organisations. They can conduct fieldwork, analyse data, and contribute to the advancement of anthropological knowledge in areas such as cultural anthropology, physical anthropology, archaeology, or linguistic anthropology.

Cultural Resource Management: Graduates can work in cultural resource management firms or government agencies, where they contribute to the preservation and documentation of cultural heritage. They may be involved in conducting surveys, excavations, or assessments of cultural sites, and ensuring their protection and conservation.

BA in Anthropology : Scope, Best Colleges

Museum Curator: Graduates with a specialisation in museum studies or cultural anthropology can work as curators in museums, art galleries, or cultural institutions. They curate exhibitions, conduct research on artefacts or cultural objects, and educate the public about different cultures and their significance.

Community Development: Graduates can work in community development organisations, NGOs, or government agencies, focusing on empowering communities, promoting social justice, and addressing cultural and social issues. They can contribute to projects related to community health, education, women’s empowerment, or sustainable development.

International Development: Anthropology graduates can work in international development organisations, assisting in projects that aim to improve the lives of marginalised communities around the world. They can be involved in cultural sensitivity training, program design, and evaluation, and ensuring that development initiatives respect local cultures and traditions.

Human Resources: Anthropology graduates possess strong interpersonal skills, cross-cultural understanding, and the ability to navigate diverse environments. They can work in human resources departments, helping organisations foster inclusive work cultures, diversity management, and intercultural communication.

Education: Graduates can pursue teaching careers in schools, colleges, or universities. They can teach anthropology, social sciences, or related subjects, sharing their knowledge and passion for understanding human cultures and societies.

Applied Anthropology: Anthropology graduates can apply their knowledge and skills in various professional contexts, such as market research, user experience design, public policy analysis, or consulting. They can contribute valuable insights into consumer behaviour, cultural dynamics, or social impact assessments.

List of Top 5 Best Universities for BA in Anthropology

Here are some esteemed colleges offering a BA in Anthropology:

1. University of Delhi

Establishment/About : Delhi University, often known as the University of Delhi, is a public central university in Delhi, India. Delhi University, which was founded in 1922, has been accredited by the NAAC with a “A+” grade and designated by the UGC as a “Institute of Excellence.”

Rankings: National and international groups have ranked DU in a number of categories. In terms of global rankings, DU is ranked between 521 and 530 in the ‘University’ category by QS Global Rankings 2023-2024; meanwhile, DU’s overall ranking by NIRF is 23 out of 200 colleges in India in 2022, while it was 19 out of 200 colleges in India in 2021. The Week’s overall ranking for DU in India is 3 out of 81 colleges in 2022, compared to 3 out of 79 in 2021.

Application Start Date: Admission to DU’s UG programmes for the class of 2023 will soon begin using the Common Seat Allocation System (CSAS). All UG programmes at Delhi University are accepting applications based on CUET results. The CUET UG 2023 exam will be conducted in a few cities on June 1, 2, 5, and 6 and from May 21 to May 31.

Fee Structure: Fee for UG Course BA is INR 4,890/- per Sem.

Admission Requirements/Eligibility: The primary requirement for admission to UG programmes is completion of 10+2 with a minimum cumulative GPA of 45%. Admission to all UG programmes at DU will take place in 2023 via the NTA-conducted Common University Entrance Test (CUET UG), followed by e-counselling.

Official Website: www.du.ac.in

2. Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU), New Delhi

Establishment/About : Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU) was established on September 22, 1969. It is a public central university located in New Delhi, India. The university was named after India’s first Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, who had a vision of establishing a world-class institution for higher education and research.

Rankings: JNU Overall ranking by NIRF is 10 out of 200 colleges in India in 2022 and it was 9 out of 200 colleges in India in 2021. JNU Overall ranking by The Week is 1 out of 81 colleges in India in 2022 and it was 1 out of 79 colleges in India in 2021. JNU Overall ranking by QS World University is 601 out of 1400 colleges in International in 2023 and it was 1001 out of 5500 colleges in International in 2021. JNU Overall ranking by Times Higher Education is 601 out of 1799 colleges in International in 2023 and it was 601 out of 1201 colleges in India in 2022. JNU Arts ranking by Times Higher Education is 301 out of 400 colleges in International in 2020.

Application Start Date: JNU admission 2023 is open for all UG programs through the Common University Entrance Test (CUET). CUET UG exam 2023 exam will be conducted from May 21 to June 06, 2023.

Fee Structure: Fee for UG Course BA is INR 648.

Admission Requirements/Eligibility: Candidates appearing for the CUET will also have to apply separately on the official website of JNU after the CUET result declaration.

Official Website: jnu.ac.in

BA in Anthropology : Scope, Best Colleges

3. University of Hyderabad

Establishment/About : The University of Hyderabad, often known as Hyderabad University, is a central university founded in 1974. The university has received “A” grade accreditation from NAAC and UGC approval.

Rankings: It has been ranked at 10th position under the University category and ranked at 20th position under the overall category by NIRF 2023 Ranking framework. Ranked at 204 in Asia and 751-800 in the world by QS Ranking 2023.

Application Start Date: University of Hyderabad admission 2023 will be conducted through the Common University Entrance Test (CUET) for UG programs. CUET UG exam 2023 exam will be conducted from May 21 to June 06, 2023.

Fee Structure: Fee for UG Course BA is INR 8720 for three years.

Admission Requirements/Eligibility: Admissions to the programs are based on CUET UG scores. Candidates further need to undergo the Counselling process for admission.

Official Website: uohyd.ac.in

4. St. Xavier’s College, Mumbai

Establishment/About : St. Xavier’s College, which was founded in 1869, has a long tradition of offering its students a top-notch education. The college is associated with the University of Mumbai and is noted for its challenging curriculum, experienced teachers, and cutting-edge facilities. A wide variety of courses, including those in the arts, sciences, business, management, and mass communication, are available at St. Xavier’s College. The college’s prestigious Bachelor of Arts (BA) programme draws applicants from around the nation.

Rankings: St. Xavier’s College Mumbai Overall ranking by NIRF is 87 out of 200 colleges in India in 2022 and it was 101 out of 200 colleges in India in 2021. St. Xavier’s College Mumbai Arts ranking by The Week is 8 out of 50 colleges in India in 2020 and it was 6 out of 50 colleges in India in 2019. St. Xavier’s College Mumbai Arts ranking by India Today is 19 out of 171 colleges in India in 2022.

Application Start Date: The XET 2023 is going to be held on June 7, 8, and 9 for the centre in Mumbai and on June 10 and 11 for centres outside Mumbai. The Last Date to Apply for BA programs is June 2. Interested candidates may visit the official website.

Fee Structure: Fee for UG Course BA is INR 5537 annually

Admission Requirements/Eligibility: St. Xavier’s College Mumbai Admission 2023 is open for BA programs. Selection for admission to these programs will be based on Xavier’s Entrance Test (XET) scores.

Official Website: xaviers.ac

5. Miranda House College, Delhi

Establishment/About : Miranda House, which was founded in 1948 in New Delhi, is well-known for supporting superior education for women. The institution, which is associated with DU, provides a wide range of courses in the arts and sciences. Over the past few years, Miranda House has continuously attained outstanding rankings.

Rankings: Miranda House, New Delhi Overall ranking by NIRF is 1 out of 200 colleges in India in 2022 and it was 1 out of 200 colleges in India in 2021. Miranda House, New Delhi Arts ranking by Outlook is 2 out of 115 colleges in India in 2022 and it was 2 out of 120 colleges in India in 2021. Miranda House, New Delhi Arts ranking by The Week is 5 out of 50 colleges in India in 2020 and it was 7 out of 50 colleges in India in 2019. Miranda House, New Delhi Arts ranking by India Today is 3 out of 171 colleges in India in 2022 and it was 3 out of 162 colleges in India in 2021.

Application Start Date: The Common Seat Allocation Portal (CSAS) of Delhi University will soon begin accepting applications for Miranda House admissions for all UG programmes in 2023. CUET scores will be used to determine admission to all UG programmes. From May 21 to May 31, 2023, the CUET UG examination will be conducted. However, due to the high volume of applications, the CUET UG 2023 exam dates have been moved to June 1, 2, and 5 in several cities.

Fee Structure: Fee for UG Course BA is INR 14160 per annum.

Admission Requirements/Eligibility: Candidates who meet the requirements for all UG programmes must register on Delhi University’s Admission Portal, after the CUET results are released. They must also fill out information about their selected college and programme. Qualifying applicants from the CUET UG exam must register on the Common Seat Allocation System (CSAS), and seats will be assigned using the CSAS portal, in order to be considered for undergraduate admissions.

Official Website: www.mirandahouse.ac.in

Note: Please note that the specific application dates, fee structures, and admission requirements may vary each year. It is recommended to visit the official websites of these universities for the most accurate and up-to-date information regarding the application process and admission requirements.

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BA in Public Administration: Scope, Best Colleges, and Admission Details

A Bachelor of Arts (BA) in Public Administration is an undergraduate degree program that focuses on the study of government institutions, policies, and public management. It equips students with the knowledge and skills required to understand and analyse public administration processes, public policy formulation, and implementation. In this article, we will explore the scope of a BA in Public Administration, highlight some of the best colleges offering the program, and provide admission details for prospective students.

BA in Public Administration: Scope, Best Colleges

What’s the course BA in Public Administration all about?

A Bachelor of Arts (BA) in Public Administration is an undergraduate degree program that focuses on the study of government institutions, public policies, and the management of public resources. It is designed to provide students with a comprehensive understanding of the administrative processes involved in governing and delivering public services.

The BA in Public Administration program covers a wide range of topics, including public policy analysis, organisational behaviour, public finance, ethics in public administration, public personnel management, and strategic planning. Students learn about the structure and functions of government agencies, the decision-making processes, and the implementation of public policies. Through a combination of theoretical coursework and practical exercises, students develop skills in critical thinking, problem-solving, policy analysis, and effective communication. They learn how to navigate the complex landscape of public administration, including budgeting, program evaluation, public leadership, and intergovernmental relations.

The curriculum often includes case studies, simulations, and internships to provide students with real-world experiences and hands-on learning opportunities. Students also gain an understanding of the legal and ethical dimensions of public administration and the importance of transparency, accountability, and good governance.

Career Scope after pursuing BA in Public Administration

After pursuing a Bachelor of Arts (BA) in Public Administration, graduates have a wide range of career opportunities in the public, nonprofit, and private sectors. Here are some potential career scopes for BA in Public Administration graduates:

Government Agencies: Graduates can work in various government agencies at the local, state, or federal level. They can pursue careers in public administration, policy analysis, program management, budgeting, human resources, or public relations. They may work in departments such as health, education, transportation, finance, or social services, contributing to policy formulation, implementation, and public service delivery.

Nonprofit Organisations: Graduates can work in nonprofit organisations that serve public interests. They can contribute to program development, fundraising, project management, or advocacy efforts. Nonprofit sectors such as healthcare, education, environmental conservation, social services, and community development offer opportunities for graduates to make a positive impact on society.

International Organisations: Graduates can work in international organisations, such as the United Nations, World Bank, or international development agencies. They can contribute to projects focused on global development, policy analysis, humanitarian aid, or sustainable development goals. These organisations offer opportunities to work on a global scale and address complex societal issues.

Consulting Firms: Graduates with a strong understanding of public administration principles and practices can work in consulting firms that provide services to government agencies or nonprofit organisations. They can assist in areas such as organisational development, policy evaluation, strategic planning, or performance management.

Research and Policy Analysis: Graduates can pursue careers in research institutions, think tanks, or policy research organisations. They can conduct research, analyse data, and provide insights into public policy issues. Their expertise in public administration can inform evidence-based decision-making and contribute to the development of effective policies and programs. Public Relations and Communications: Graduates can work in public relations or communications departments of government agencies, nonprofit organisations, or consulting firms. They can engage in public outreach, media relations, strategic communications, or public affairs, ensuring effective communication between organisations and the public.

Local Governance and Community Development: Graduates can work in local government offices, community development agencies, or civic organisations. They can contribute to initiatives focused on community empowerment, urban planning, sustainable development, or citizen engagement. They may work closely with local communities to address their needs and enhance the quality of public services.

Academic and Research Institutions: Graduates can pursue further studies at the postgraduate level and pursue academic or research careers in public administration, public policy, or related disciplines. They can contribute to knowledge generation, teach aspiring public administrators, and engage in advanced research on public governance and policy issues.

BA in Public Administration: Scope, Best Colleges

List of Top 5 Best Universities for BA in Public Administration

Here are some esteemed colleges offering a BA in Public Administration:

1. St. Xavier’s College, Mumbai

Establishment/About : St. Xavier’s College, which was founded in 1869, has a long tradition of offering its students a top-notch education. The college is associated with the University of Mumbai and is noted for its challenging curriculum, experienced teachers, and cutting-edge facilities. A wide variety of courses, including those in the arts, sciences, business, management, and mass communication, are available at St. Xavier’s College. The college’s prestigious Bachelor of Arts (BA) programme draws applicants from around the nation.

Rankings: St. Xavier’s College Mumbai Overall ranking by NIRF is 87 out of 200 colleges in India in 2022 and it was 101 out of 200 colleges in India in 2021. St. Xavier’s College Mumbai Arts ranking by The Week is 8 out of 50 colleges in India in 2020 and it was 6 out of 50 colleges in India in 2019. St. Xavier’s College Mumbai Arts ranking by India Today is 19 out of 171 colleges in India in 2022.

Application Start Date: The XET 2023 is going to be held on June 7, 8, and 9 for the centre in Mumbai and on June 10 and 11 for centres outside Mumbai. The Last Date to Apply for BA programs is June 2. Interested candidates may visit the official website.

Fee Structure: Fee for UG Course BA is INR 5537 annually

Admission Requirements/Eligibility: St. Xavier’s College Mumbai Admission 2023 is open for BA programs. Selection for admission to these programs will be based on Xavier’s Entrance Test (XET) scores.

Official Website: xaviers.ac

2. Banasthali Vidyapith

Establishment/About : Banasthali Vidyapith is a university in the Tonk district of Rajasthan, India. It is a considered institution of higher learning that offers courses leading to secondary, senior secondary, undergraduate, and postgraduate degrees.

Rankings: Banasthali Vidyapith Overall ranking by NIRF is 58 out of 201 colleges in India in 2023 and it was 87 out of 200 colleges in India in 2022. Banasthali Vidyapith B.Tech ranking by NIRF is 68 out of 201 colleges in India in 2023 and it was 59 out of 300 colleges in India in 2022. Banasthali Vidyapith Overall ranking by The Week is 13 out of 81 colleges in India in 2022 and it was 2 out of 44 colleges in India in 2021. Banasthali Vidyapith Overall ranking by India Today is 11 out of 146 colleges in India in 2021. Banasthali Vidyapith Commerce ranking by India Today is 88 out of 200 colleges in India in 2021.Banasthali Vidyapith Overall ranking by Outlook is 93 out of 100 colleges in India in 2019. Banasthali Vidyapith Law ranking by Outlook is 15 out of 30 colleges in India in 2022.

Application Start Date: Application process is ongoing.

Fee Structure: Fee for UG Course BA is INR 48000 Annually.

Admission Requirements/Eligibility: For admission to BA, the candidate must be an intermediate graduate with Arts/ Science/ Home Science. Admission to the same is done based on merit scored in qualifying examination, however, for some courses, an aptitude test is also conducted at the university level.

Official Website: www.banasthali.org

BA in Public Administration: Scope, Best Colleges

3. Jyoti Nivas College

Establishment/About : Jyoti Nivas College is a women’s autonomous college in Koramangala, Bangalore, India. The Sisters of St. Joseph of Tarbes founded it, and it was formed in 1966. It is affiliated with Bengaluru City University.

Rankings: Jyoti Nivas College Arts ranking by The Week is 44 out of 50 colleges in India in 2020 and it was 42 out of 50 colleges in India in 2019.

Application Start Date: Applications are now Available.

Fee Structure: Fee for UG Course BA is INR 20492 annually.

Admission Requirements/Eligibility: Jyoti Nivas College offers undergraduate admission based on performance in the prerequisite exam. A recognised board’s 10+2 exam or its equivalent must have been passed by candidates. Both online and offline methods are used for the application procedure. Candidates have the option of purchasing or downloading the application form from the college office.

Official Website: www.jyotinivas.org

4. Christ (deemed-to-be-university), Bangalore

Establishment/About : Christ University is a deemed-to-be-university in Bangalore, Karnataka, India. Christ College, which was founded in 1969 as Christ College, was granted autonomy by the University Grants Commission (UGC) of India in 2004. approximately 20,000 students attend the university, and there are approximately 800 academic members. Around 700 international students from 58 different countries attend this university. The university provides undergraduate, graduate, and research programmes that are accredited both domestically and abroad.

Rankings: Christ is ranked 20-25 in the QS India rankings for the year 2020. Christ was ranked 19 in 2019. Its position among Asian institutions is 501-550. Christ University is ranked second in the general (private) university category in India Today’s Best Universities Survey 2022. According to India Today MDRA Survey of Excellence National Rankings, Christ University is ranked first for BCA Programme, fourth for BBA, seventh for Commerce, seventh for Media and Social Work, and ninth for Arts.

Application Start Date: Open From : 28-May-2023, Open Until : 11-June-2023, Applicants may apply online for the programme from January 2023 on the University website till the date of applications officially closing.

Fee Structure: Fee for UG Course BA is INR 75,000 INR P/A for Karnataka domicile students and 95,000 INR for students from other states students. The university provides comprehensive information on the course fees through their official website.

Admission Requirements/Eligibility: Minimum Eligibility will be PUC/10 +2 from across Boards ((Karnataka PUC, ISCE, CBSE, NIOS, other State Boards), and recognized bodies in India.). Candidates writing the +2 examinations in March-May 2023 may apply with their class X and XI marks. The selection process will include auditions, skill assessments, personal interview and reviewing of previous academic performance.

Official Website: christuniversity.in

5. Loyola College, Chennai

Establishment/About : Loyola College is a private institution located in Chennai, India. It was founded in 1952. Loyola College, which is affiliated with the University of Madras, is ranked among the top five institutions in India for degree programmes in business, arts, natural sciences, and social sciences.

Rankings: Loyola College ranking has been released by national agencies such as NIRF, Outlook ICare, The Week and many more. As per latest NIRF 2022 rankings, Loyola College Chennai has been ranked 4th in College Category while in 2021, the institute was ranked 3rd under College Category. Also The Week ranked Arts stream of Loyola College at 6th while science stream was ranked 4th and Commerce was ranked 5th. Loyola College Chennai has been ranked 3rd by India Today Ranking 2022 for BBA course under India’s Best BBA Colleges 2022, also the institute is ranked 7th for Arts stream and 6th for Science stream. Also it is ranked 4th under India’s Best BCA Colleges 2022.

Application Start Date: Applications for admission are now open.

Fee Structure: Fee for UG Course BA is INR 11900 annually.

Admission Requirements/Eligibility: Candidates are shortlisted to the UG program on the basis of merit as well as interviews conducted by the Loyola College. Minimum eligibility for UG courses is to pass in HSC or Plus two examinations in any relevant stream from a recognized board. Selection to UG courses is done on the basis of merit in the qualifying examination followed by interview.

Official Website: www.loyolacollege.edu

Note: Please note that the specific application dates, fee structures, and admission requirements may vary each year. It is recommended to visit the official websites of these universities for the most accurate and up-to-date information regarding the application process and admission requirements.

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BA in Rural Studies: Scope, Best Colleges, and Admission Details

A Bachelor of Arts (BA) in Rural Studies is an undergraduate degree program that focuses on the study of rural communities, their development, and the various aspects related to rural life. It equips students with knowledge and skills in areas such as rural development, agriculture, rural economics, rural sociology, and rural policy-making. In this article, we will explore the scope of a BA in Rural Studies, highlight some of the best colleges offering the program, and provide admission details for prospective students.

BA in Rural Studies: Scope, Best Colleges

What’s the course BA in Rural Studies all about?

A Bachelor of Arts (BA) in Rural Studies is an undergraduate degree program that focuses on the study of rural communities, their development, and the various aspects related to rural life. It is an interdisciplinary field that combines elements of sociology, economics, geography, agriculture, environmental studies, and community development.

The BA in Rural Studies program aims to provide students with a comprehensive understanding of the unique challenges and opportunities present in rural areas. Students explore topics such as rural economies, agricultural practices, land use, rural policy, community development, sustainable practices, and rural-urban dynamics.

Through a combination of theoretical coursework, fieldwork, and practical experiences, students gain insights into the social, economic, cultural, and environmental factors that shape rural communities. They learn about the diverse needs and characteristics of rural populations, as well as the strategies and policies required for their well-being and sustainable development.

The curriculum often includes courses on rural sociology, rural economics, rural development, community engagement, agricultural practices, environmental sustainability, and rural policy analysis. Students may also have the opportunity to engage in hands-on learning through internships, field studies, or research projects, where they can apply their knowledge and skills to address real-world rural issues.

Career Scope after pursuing BA in Rural Studies

After pursuing a Bachelor of Arts (BA) in Rural Studies, graduates have various career opportunities that allow them to work in rural development, community engagement, and sustainable practices. Here are some potential career scopes for BA in Rural Studies graduates:

Rural Development Officer: Graduates can work as rural development officers in government agencies, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), or community development organisations. They can contribute to the planning, implementation, and evaluation of development projects focused on improving the quality of life in rural communities. This may include initiatives related to infrastructure development, healthcare access, education, agriculture, and livelihood enhancement.

: Graduates can work as community outreach coordinators in Community Outreach CoordinatorNGOs or nonprofit organisations. They can engage with rural communities, assess their needs, and develop programs that address social, economic, and environmental issues. They may work on initiatives related to community health, women’s empowerment, environmental conservation, or sustainable agriculture.

BA in Rural Studies: Scope, Best Colleges

Rural Entrepreneurship: Graduates can explore opportunities for rural entrepreneurship and start their own ventures aimed at supporting rural communities. This can include initiatives such as agribusiness, eco-tourism, artisanal products, or rural-based services. They can contribute to local economic development, create employment opportunities, and promote sustainable practices.

Policy Analyst: Graduates can work as policy analysts in research institutions, government agencies, or think tanks. They can analyse policies related to rural development, agriculture, or rural sustainability, and provide insights to inform decision-making processes. They may assess the impact of policies on rural communities and suggest improvements or alternatives.

Land and Resource Management: Graduates can work in land and resource management roles, focusing on sustainable practices and environmental conservation in rural areas. They may work in government agencies or environmental organisations, ensuring responsible land use, conservation of natural resources, and promoting sustainable agriculture and forestry practices.

Rural Health Worker: Graduates can work in healthcare organisations or community health projects, focusing on rural health issues. They may provide health education, coordinate healthcare services, and promote preventive healthcare practices in rural communities. This can involve working in collaboration with local healthcare providers and organisations to improve access to healthcare in remote areas.

Education and Extension Services: Graduates can work as educators or extension officers, providing educational programs and support services to rural communities. They may work in schools, colleges, or extension agencies, promoting agricultural techniques, sustainable farming practices, rural entrepreneurship, or other skills necessary for rural development.

Research and Academia: Graduates can pursue further studies at the postgraduate level and engage in research or academic careers. They can contribute to research institutions, universities, or think tanks, conducting studies on rural issues, community development, or sustainable practices. They may also teach rural studies or related subjects, inspiring future generations of rural development professionals.

List of Top 5 Best Universities for BA in Rural Studies

Here are some esteemed colleges offering a BA in Rural Studies :

1. Hindu College, New Delhi

Establishment/About : Hindu College, located in New Delhi, India, is a constituent college of the University of Delhi. It is one of the oldest and most well-known colleges in the nation and was established in 1899.

Rankings: Hindu College, New Delhi Overall ranking by NIRF is 2 out of 200 colleges in India in 2022 and it was 9 out of 200 colleges in India in 2021. Hindu College, New Delhi Arts ranking by The Week is 3 out of 50 colleges in India in 2020 and it was 3 out of 50 colleges in India in 2019.Hindu College, New Delhi Arts ranking by India Today is 1 out of 171 colleges in India in 2022 and it was 1 out of 162 colleges in India in 2021.Hindu College, New Delhi Arts ranking by Outlook is 3 out of 115 colleges in India in 2022 and it was 3 out of 120 colleges in India in 2021.

Application Start Date: Hindu College admission 2023 for all UG programs will start soon through Delhi University’s Common Seat Allocation Portal (CSAS). Admissions to all UG PG programs will be based on CUET scores. CUET UG 2023 exam will be conducted from May 21 to May 31, 2023. However, CUET UG 2023 exam dates have been extended to June 1, 2, 5, and 6 in selected cities, due to the large number of applicants.

Fee Structure: Fee for UG Course BA is INR 17560 Annually.

Admission Requirements/Eligibility: Once the CUET result is out, registration process for all UG and PG programs will start on Delhi University’s admission portal. Candidates will then be required to fill program and college choices for seat allocation. Seat allocation for UG courses will be done through the Common Seat Allocation System (CSAS) portal.

Official Website: hinducollege.ac.in

2. Sabar Gramme Seva Mahavidyalaya

Establishment/About : Sabar Gramme Seva Mahavidyalaya is a prestigious institute founded in 1987. It is situated in Gujarat. Students may enrol in the Institute’s reputable UG Humanities & Social Sciences degree programme.

Application Start Date: Applications are now open.

Fee Structure: Visit the official Website to know more about fees.

Admission Requirements/Eligibility:

Official Website: sabargram.org

BA in Rural Studies: Scope, Best Colleges

3. Presidency University, Kolkata

Establishment/About : The UGC has designated Presidency University Kolkata, founded in 1817, as an Institution of National Eminence. In July 2010, the institution became a university after serving for more than a century as a prominent constituent college under Calcutta University. It is accredited by NAAC with a “A” Grade and is recognised by the UGC. The university contains 17 departments that offer undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral programmes with a focus on the arts and sciences.

Rankings: Presidency University Kolkata Overall ranking by NIRF is 151 out of 200 colleges in India in 2022 and it was 151 out of 200 colleges in India in 2021. Presidency University Kolkata MBA ranking by The Week is 135 out of 179 colleges in India in 2022. Presidency University Kolkata Overall ranking by Outlook is 17 out of 50 colleges in India in 2020.

Application Start Date: Application process ended during feb and Exam Date is 3rd & 4th May 2023

Fee Structure: Fee for UG Course BA is INR 2000 per annually.

Admission Requirements/Eligibility: The minimum eligibility criteria for admission is 10+2 in the relevant subject group from a recognized university. 5% relaxation will be offered to the candidates belonging to reserved categories. Admission is offered on the basis of candidates’ scores in PUBDET organised by WBJEEB. WBJEEB finalises the admission after conducting counselling rounds for the selected candidates as per the PUBDET merit list.

Official Website: www.presiuniv.ac.in

4. Fergusson College, Pune

Establishment/About : The Deccan Education Society founded Fergusson College in Pune in 1885. The college was granted Special Heritage Status by UGC in 2014 and College of Excellence status by UGC in 2017. It is affiliated with Savitribai Phule Pune University (SPPU).

Rankings: Fergusson College, Pune Overall ranking by NIRF is 57 out of 200 colleges in India in 2022 and it was 96 out of 200 colleges in India in 2021. Fergusson College, Pune Arts ranking by The Week is 11 out of 50 colleges in India in 2020 and it was 10 out of 50 colleges in India in 2019.

Application Start Date/ Important dates: Availability of Application forms online from 27/05/2023 11.00 AM Up to 10/06/2023 23.55 PM. Display of General list of applicants as per the subject choice (provisional) 14/06/2023 4.00 PM. Display of Merit List and Schedule for Admission 20/06/2023

Fee Structure: Fee for UG Course BA is INR 9355 annually.

Admission Requirements/Eligibility: Online submissions are required for Fergusson College admissions applications. Applicants who have taken Higher Secondary Examinations in Science, Arts, or Commerce are eligible for admission to several undergraduate courses. According to university policies, admission to all UG degrees shall be based on merit.

Official Website: www.fergusson.edu

BA in Rural Studies: Scope, Best Colleges

5. Loyola College, Chennai

Establishment/About : Loyola College is a private institution located in Chennai, India. It was founded in 1952. Loyola College, which is affiliated with the University of Madras, is ranked among the top five institutions in India for degree programmes in business, arts, natural sciences, and social sciences.

Rankings: Loyola College ranking has been released by national agencies such as NIRF, Outlook ICare, The Week and many more. As per latest NIRF 2022 rankings, Loyola College Chennai has been ranked 4th in College Category while in 2021, the institute was ranked 3rd under College Category. Also The Week ranked Arts stream of Loyola College at 6th while science stream was ranked 4th and Commerce was ranked 5th. Loyola College Chennai has been ranked 3rd by India Today Ranking 2022 for BBA course under India’s Best BBA Colleges 2022, also the institute is ranked 7th for Arts stream and 6th for Science stream. Also it is ranked 4th under India’s Best BCA Colleges 2022.

Application Start Date: Applications for admission are now open.

Fee Structure: Fee for UG Course BA is INR 11900 annually.

Admission Requirements/Eligibility: Candidates are shortlisted to the UG program on the basis of merit as well as interviews conducted by the Loyola College. Minimum eligibility for UG courses is to pass in HSC or Plus two examinations in any relevant stream from a recognized board. Selection to UG courses is done on the basis of merit in the qualifying examination followed by interview.

Official Website: www.loyolacollege.edu

Note: Please note that the specific application dates, fee structures, and admission requirements may vary each year. It is recommended to visit the official websites of these universities for the most accurate and up-to-date information regarding the application process and admission requirements.

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